MDMA is called as 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts as a stimulant and hallucinogens (alters persons’ awareness about the environment). This research chemical shows chemical resemblance to 3,4-methylenedioxymphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE) that’s why called as amphetamine-like compound. It is a common recreational and psychoactive drug derived from safrole oil.
MDMA was stated to perform functions in psychiatric consoling because this legal drug is administrated to facilitate the accessing of deep emotions in patients. MDMA stimulates synthesis of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by binding to plasma membrane transporter proteins. It inhibits the uptake of these neurotransmitters and enhances their release. The stimulation of serotonin results in happy mood, dopamine reinforce behavior, and norepinephrine cause increased blood pressure and heart rate. It is present purely in water-soluble white or off-white powder. Capsules (filled with MDMA), pills, and crystals are the other forms that are ingested by dissolving into water or other food items, especially alcohol or marijuana. The powder is often consumed through smoking and snorting.
MDMA was firstly manufactured by Merck KGaA (German pharmaceutical company) in 1912 during identification of new blood-clotting agents. They reacted safrole with hydrobromic acid that forms Bromo safrole. It was treated with methylamine that results in the formation of MDMA. Iso-safrole and piperonal are also utilized for the synthesis of MDMA. The chemical composition of MDMA is C11H15NO2.
Fig:1 Chemical structure of MDMA
After ingestion of MDMA, its effects last for 3-6 hours. Some users take the second dose before the elimination of effects of the first dose. This bath salt drug produces the following effects on ingestion.
- MDMA promotes improves psychological functions by increasing serotonin concentration, which leads to increased sociability, emotional closeness, responsiveness, understanding, healthiness, and enhanced relationships.
- It helps to release certain chemicals that arouse sexual behavior, increased energy, happiness, satisfaction, emotions, and love. It stimulates the high temperature, causing hyperthermia.
The side effects of the MDMA are
- The use of MDMA street drug results in distorted sensory functions and time awareness with increased feelings of anxiety, depression, and irritability (touchiness).
- The overdose of MDMA causes difficulty in sleeping, weight loss, convulsions, and termers.
- Clenching of teeth, chills, sweating, nausea, thoughtlessness, aggression, memory, and attention problems are common outcomes of the overuse of this drug.
- All the body cells and organs are temperature sensitive. Spike in body temperature can result in electrolyte (mostly sodium ion) imbalance in the body, which in turn, cause major organ failure like heart, kidney, and liver.
- Consumption of MDMA with Viagra boosts unsafe sexual behavior and can transmit AIDS.
Street names MDMA is a street drug that is sold in the forms of Molly, Ecstasy, Mandy, Adam, love drug, clarity, beans, lovers’ speed, and XTC. The most commonly used are Molly and Ecstasy. Molly is a pure crystalline powder form of MDMA hydrochloride salt that is present in the form of capsules. Ecstasy is present in the form of oral pills. It is impure form having some other bath salt drugs of cathinone family.