4-ACO-DMT is an unnaturally produced hallucinogenic tryptamine. There are many names for it i.e. O-Acetylpsilocin or 4-Acetoxy-DMT. Structurally, 4-ACO-DMT is the bottom homolog of 4-AcO-DET and 4-AcO-DiPT. For the equivalent use of psilocybin, David Nichols prescribed this drug. In pharmacological education, Both the drugs have the equivalent outcome. Its organizational resemblances to psilocin and psilocybin outcomes in an equal individual consequence profile. These 3 compounds are the same, so they are identical to each other overall.

Linkage with Pharmacology

Through research, you would see small information exist on the receptor blend and breakdown of this drug. There are many cases in the pharmacology in which psilocin will do a breakdown by the stomach and liver. By these practices, we can say that 4-ACO-DMT might have the equivalent movement within the human body.

This drug is a prodrug of psilocin. Many individuals suggest that it also has various functions. Circumstantial information of psychoactivity when vaccinated or ingested predicts that these both have a similar pharmacodynamic profile. You have seen many drugs that are intended in mushrooms with the assumed consequence of their structure and psilocybin is one of them.

There are many drugs i.e. psilocybin/psilocin which are generally recognized to be safe are similar to the 4-AcO-DMT. There is no valid evidence for the overdose of this drug and a lot of research is needed in this field. Few reports of 4-AcO-DMT indicate the consequences of overdoses of the drug i.e. queasiness, severe cardinal concerns, hypertension, and annexations, but not mortalities. If you don’t take other drugs, then you would see a rare case in which death is caused.


Most individuals who take this drug match it with psilocybin mushrooms because they have the equivalent properties. It is usually defined as elated, mild, heartfelt, and bright. Many users told that this drug is brighter in visual and it has more neon than that of DMT. In every 1.24 mg of drug, there is an average 1 mg pure AcO-DMT. You would experience an average of 1 mg pure this drug in a hydrochloride salt if it is 1.15 mg. There might be a slight difference in practice but that is also very rare. On the Internet, you would see the amount of dosage to be taken and it is safe. Its effects are not similar all the time. It depends that how much quantity of drug an individual intake and when?

As most of the individuals link this drug with psilocybin mushrooms So they predict that both have the same health and side effects. The Immediate consequences of this drug might last for about 2 days. Some users who do experiment also say that both drugs don’t have identical immediate effects. They say that mushrooms are less smooth and overjoyed than 4-ACO-DMT. After taking the high doses they link this drug with DMT for its intense possessions. Everything when taken in a limited amount, has no harmful effect on the human body. You will also experience some positive effects too i.e.  Elation, amusement, Improved image, Improved gratitude for songs, Amplified compassion, Logical views, Spiritual skill, and many more.

Variations in observation of enormity or bodily feelings are also generally stated. People say that if you want to kill your ego than you should try this drug because after taking this drug human temporarily forget their names. As humans do not intake this drug in overdose so there are no such mental fitness concerns. It doesn’t mean that it is safe to intake But you can turn down your bad time to a good time if you want.

Mephedrone acts as a psychoactive drug


Mephedrone acts as a psychoactive drug that is a synthetic cannabinoid with stimulant properties. It stimulates the central nervous system, which in turn excites physical and mental functions. It is also termed as 4-methylephedrone or 4-methyl methcathinone (4-MMC).


This bath salt drug belongs to the cathinone group of drugs, which is naturally obtained from the Khat plant. This drug was initially advertised as a research chemical and considered as a legal drug as an alternative to other drugs like ecstasy, cocaine, and speed. People use it occasionally for pleasure as it speeds up the action potential between brain, and body producing similar effects like cocaine, MDMA, and amphetamines.

Mephedrone is a white or yellowish powder that is present in diverse forms like crystals, capsules (filled with powdered mephedrone), pills, powder, and injections. It has the smell of vanilla, bleach, electric circuit boards, and urine. The powdered mephedrone is either swallowed by mixing with foodstuff or drink, inhaled through the nasal pathway, and bombing by cigarette with effects enduring to 2-3 hours. The injections of mephedrone are taken intravenously with effects of enjoyment and relaxation that persists for half an hour. Mephedrone is most frequently consumed with alcohol, and it improves the psychostimulant effects of mephedrone by increasing the release of dopamine at nerve junctions.

Chemical formulae

Mephedrone was first manufactured by using 4-methylpropiophenone treated with glacial acetic acid in 1929 and rediscovered in 1999-2000. Mephedrone is a chiral complex that exhibits potency to act as a substrate at the dopamine transporter. It has the chemical formulae C11H15NO.

Fig.1  Mephedrone chemical structure

The only one oxygen molecule is keto oxygen that makes this complex more hydrophilic. This legal high drug can cross the blood-brain barrier.

Uses/ Effects

The effects of mephedrone differ from person to person. It depends upon the volume of the drug taken, combinations with other drugs, and potency of the drug. After taking the drug, it produces the following effects.

  • It makes a person glad, thrilled, and feel energetic in doing work.
  • This street drug produces effects of euphoria, improved mood, and enhanced admiration of music, thus making its more usage through parties and events.
  • Mephedrone act as a sexual stimulant by improving psychological functions. 
  • Mephedrone raises the affection to people living around you and makes you vigilant.
  • The user becomes talkative (wish to talk more and more) and increase the desire of re-doze.

Side effects

The side effects of the drug are:

  • Users feel nausea, headache, restlessness, obsessed, and feeling of sick.
  • Overdose of this bath salt drug may lead to overstimulation of the nervous system. This results in hallucination (seeing unnatural things), paroxysms, and feeling of agitation. Blubbing of mephedrone can cause blazes and nose hemorrhage.
  • This street drug reduces hunger, harms heart and circulation, and tachycardia (high blood pressure with hot flushes). Its overdose also triggers muscle stress of face and jaw, crushing of teeth, distorted vision, restless sleep, sweating, and even memory loss.

Street names

Mephedrone is used as a street drug. The street drug list name of mephedrone contains meow-meow (most commonly), white magic, bubbles, M-smack, drone, Meph, Charge, MC, bounce, M-dog, and M-cat.

MDPV is 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone and belongs to “pyrroliinophenones”


MDPV is 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone and belongs to “pyrroliinophenones” (a sub-class of stimulating cathinone). It has a complex chemical structure holding a pyrrolidine ring and an alkyl side-chain extending from the α-carbon. MDPV is a psychoactive synthetic cannabinoid that interferes with the transport of neurotransmitters by binding to monoamine transporters.


MDPV is a bath salt drug that shares some functional similarities with other stimulants such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, MDMA, and cocaine. It acts as an inhibitor and blocks the monoamine transporter that reduces the ability of neurons to reabsorb epinephrine and dopamine, leading to effective increases in their intensity and duration. MDPV is extraordinarily effective at the dopamine (DA) transporter, shows minor effect at the norepinephrine transporter, and completely ineffective at the serotonin transporter.

MDPV is a white, yellowish-tan, or pale brown hygroscopic crystalline powder present in pure form that can be clumpy like sugar granules. It’s usually sold as a powder-filled capsules, powder, or tablets. This research chemical USA vendor is observed to decompose and change its properties rapidly when exposed to air due to the presence of impurities. It has bromine-like or fishy smell due to impurities. MDPV synthetic drug is usually consumed orally, insufflation, smoking, snorting, and intravenously.

Chemical formulae

MDPV is a counterpart of the pyrovalerone compound that was initially synthesized by a  pharmaceutical firm Boehringer Ingelheim in the 1960s. It was used for the treatment of enduring fatigue problems, but later on, it was used for recreational purposes and sold as legal highs. The chemical composition of MDPV is C16H21NO3.

Fig:1 Chemical structure of MDPV


The effects of the drug after ingestion starts from 30 minutes and lasts for 2-3 hours with aftereffects up to eight hours. It depends upon the route of entry, amount of the drug ingested, and combination with other drugs. Some of the effects are:

  • MDPV produces amphetamine-like effects, such as feeling of responsiveness, increased sociability, increased energy, mental, and physical stimulation.
  • This research chemical is responsible for dopamine reuptake, increasing its concentration in the body that leads to stimulation, change in cognitive behavior, and arousal of sex by controlling reward and motor center.

Side effects

Overdose of the bath salt MDPV can cause severe complications leading to death. Its combination usage with other reagents like acetaminophen can lead to seizures. Some of the side effects are following.

  • High doses can cause anxiety, muscle spasms, elevated heart rate, anxiety, and delusions. High temperature leads to organ failure and blood vessel problems.
  • The users who cannot tolerate the high dose of the MDPV drug faces severe panic attacks, cravings, depression, and neurosis.
  • Injecting, snorting, and smoking with usage of other persons pipes, straws, and needles can lead to transmission of HIV and hepatitis transmission.
  • Acute toxic effects of this bath salt drug can occur due to over-stimulation of the cardiovascular and central nervous system. It causes agitation, hyperthermia, tachycardia, acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, and hallucinations.
  • Lung damage due to inhalation, cancer of nasal epithelium, and infertility can result in repeated use of the drug.

Street names

The most common street name of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone is monkey dust. The other street names of this psychoactive stimulant are MDPK, MTV, pixie dust, vanilla sky, aura, super coke, and magic.

MDMA is called as 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine.


MDMA is called as 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts as a stimulant and hallucinogens (alters persons’ awareness about the environment). This research chemical shows chemical resemblance to 3,4-methylenedioxymphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE) that’s why called as amphetamine-like compound. It is a common recreational and psychoactive drug derived from safrole oil.


MDMA  was stated to perform functions in psychiatric consoling because this legal drug is administrated to facilitate the accessing of deep emotions in patients. MDMA stimulates synthesis of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by binding to plasma membrane transporter proteins. It inhibits the uptake of these neurotransmitters and enhances their release. The stimulation of serotonin results in happy mood, dopamine reinforce behavior, and norepinephrine cause increased blood pressure and heart rate.  It is present purely in water-soluble white or off-white powder. Capsules (filled with MDMA), pills, and crystals are the other forms that are ingested by dissolving into water or other food items, especially alcohol or marijuana. The powder is often consumed through smoking and snorting.  

Chemical formulae

MDMA was firstly manufactured by Merck KGaA (German pharmaceutical company) in 1912 during identification of new blood-clotting agents. They reacted safrole with hydrobromic acid that forms Bromo safrole. It was treated with methylamine that results in the formation of MDMA. Iso-safrole and piperonal are also utilized for the synthesis of MDMA. The chemical composition of MDMA is C11H15NO2.

Fig:1 Chemical structure of MDMA


After ingestion of MDMA, its effects last for 3-6 hours. Some users take the second dose before the elimination of effects of the first dose. This bath salt drug produces the following effects on ingestion.

  • MDMA promotes improves psychological functions by increasing serotonin concentration, which leads to increased sociability, emotional closeness, responsiveness, understanding, healthiness, and enhanced relationships.
  • It helps to release certain chemicals that arouse sexual behavior, increased energy, happiness, satisfaction, emotions, and love. It stimulates the high temperature, causing hyperthermia.

Side effects

The side effects of the MDMA are

  • The use of MDMA street drug results in distorted sensory functions and time awareness with increased feelings of anxiety, depression, and irritability (touchiness).
  • The overdose of MDMA causes difficulty in sleeping, weight loss, convulsions, and termers.
  • Clenching of teeth, chills, sweating, nausea, thoughtlessness, aggression, memory, and attention problems are common outcomes of the overuse of this drug.
  • All the body cells and organs are temperature sensitive. Spike in body temperature can result in electrolyte (mostly sodium ion) imbalance in the body, which in turn, cause major organ failure like heart, kidney, and liver.
  • Consumption of MDMA with Viagra boosts unsafe sexual behavior and can transmit AIDS.      

Street names MDMA is a street drug that is sold in the forms of Molly, Ecstasy, Mandy, Adam, love drug, clarity, beans, lovers’ speed, and XTC. The most commonly used are Molly and Ecstasy. Molly is a pure crystalline powder form of MDMA hydrochloride salt that is present in the form of capsules. Ecstasy is present in the form of oral pills. It is impure form having some other bath salt drugs of cathinone family.